A comprehensive review of the world's literature, covering research in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1966 to 2008, shows that eating a Mediterranean Diet prolongs life and helps to prevents heart attacks, cancer, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (British Medical Journal, September 2008).
The combined studies included more than 1.5 million people followed for up to eighteen years. The reviewers analyzed total diet, rather than individual components of diet, because "the analyses of single nutrients ignore important interactions between components of a diet and because people do not eat isolated nutrients."
The Mediterranean diet contains abundant amounts of fruits, vegetables (including olives), whole grains, beans, seeds, nuts, fish, and up to two glasses of red wine a day. It does not include red meat and has only small amounts of dairy products (cheese).
In studies analyzing single components in the diet, eating red meat is associated with premature death, heart attacks, strokes, at least 23 different cancers, and arthritis. Not eating lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, seeds and nuts is associated with the same diseases. The more different vegetables you eat, the longer you live. Fish eaters live longer than people who do not eat fish.
It is sad that the Western Diet has reached Greece, where three-quarters of the adult population is overweight and the incidence of diabetes, heart disease and arthritis approaches that found in North America. The Mediterranean populations are sacrificing their health to the convenience and taste of "fast food" instead of following their traditional diet.
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Buckland, G., Gonzalez, C. A., Agudo, A., Vilardell, M., Berenguer, A., Amiano, P., Ardanaz, E., Arriola, L., Barricarte, A., Basterretxea, M., Chirlaque, M. D., Cirera, L., Dorronsoro, M., Egues, N., Huerta, J. M., Larranaga, N., Marin, P., Martinez, C., Molina, E., Navarro, C., Quiros, J. R., Rodriguez, L., Sanchez, M.-J., Tormo, M.-J., Moreno-Iribas, C. (2009). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in the Spanish EPIC Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol 170: 1518-1529
Scarmeas, N., Luchsinger, J. A., Stern, Y. (2009). Diet, Exercise Habits, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease--Reply. JAMA 302: 2431-2432 Akbaraly, T. N., Brunner, E. J., Ferrie, J. E., Marmot, M. G., Kivimaki, M., Singh-Manoux, A. (2009). Dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in middle age. Br. J. Psychiatry 195: 408-413
Esposito, K., Maiorino, M. I., Ciotola, M., Di Palo, C., Scognamiglio, P., Gicchino, M., Petrizzo, M., Saccomanno, F., Beneduce, F., Ceriello, A., Giugliano, D. (2009). Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on the Need for Antihyperglycemic Drug Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial. ANN INTERN MED 151: 306-314
Sansbury, L. B., Wanke, K., Albert, P. S., Kahle, L., Schatzkin, A., Lanza, E., the Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group, (2009). The Effect of Strict Adherence to a High-Fiber, High-Fruit and -Vegetable, and Low-Fat Eating Pattern on Adenoma Recurrence. Am J Epidemiol 170: 576-584
Romaguera, D., Norat, T., Mouw, T., May, A. M., Bamia, C., Slimani, N., Travier, N., Besson, H., Luan, J., Wareham, N., Rinaldi, S., Couto, E., Clavel-Chapelon, F., Boutron-Ruault, M.-C., Cottet, V., Palli, D., Agnoli, C., Panico, S., Tumino, R., Vineis, P., Agudo, A., Rodriguez, L., Sanchez, M. J., Amiano, P., Barricarte, A., Huerta, J. M., Key, T. J., Spencer, E. A., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Buchner, F. L., Orfanos, P., Naska, A., Trichopoulou, A., Rohrmann, S., Kaaks, R., Bergmann, M., Boeing, H., Johansson, I., Hellstrom, V., Manjer, J., Wirfalt, E., Uhre Jacobsen, M., Overvad, K., Tjonneland, A., Halkjaer, J., Lund, E., Braaten, T., Engeset, D., Odysseos, A., Riboli, E., Peeters, P. H. M. (2009). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Lower Abdominal Adiposity in European Men and Women. J. Nutr. 139: 1728-1737
Feart, C., Samieri, C., Rondeau, V., Amieva, H., Portet, F., Dartigues, J.-F., Scarmeas, N., Barberger-Gateau, P. (2009). Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Decline, and Risk of Dementia. JAMA 302: 638-648 Knopman, D. S. (2009). Mediterranean Diet and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment: A Taste of Benefit. JAMA 302: 686-687 [Full text] Trichopoulou, A., Bamia, C., Trichopoulos, D. (2009). Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study. BMJ 338: b2337-b2337
Brantsaeter, A. L., Haugen, M., Samuelsen, S. O., Torjusen, H., Trogstad, L., Alexander, J., Magnus, P., Meltzer, H. M. (2009). A Dietary Pattern Characterized by High Intake of Vegetables, Fruits, and Vegetable Oils Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Preeclampsia in Nulliparous Pregnant Norwegian Women. J. Nutr. 139: 1162-1168
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