• A study of 1535 cancer survivors over 40 years old, followed for 4.5 years, found that those who did not exercise and those who sat for more than eight hour per day were at the highest risk for death from cancer (JAMA Oncol, published online January 6, 2022).
• A study from the University of Sydney followed 80,000 adults and found that strength training twice a week reduced the likelihood of dying from cancer by 31 percent (American Journal of Epidemiology, May 2018;187(5):1102–1112).
• A study of 35,564 cancer patients, 40 to 70 years old, who did not suffer from diabetes or heart disease and were followed for up to 15 years, found that those who followed a healthful lifestyle were significantly less likely to also suffer diabetes or heart disease ((J Am Coll Cardiol CardioOnc, Dec 3, 2021;3(5):663–674). A healthful lifestyle was defined as no smoking, regular physical activity, a healthful diet, and no more than moderate alcohol consumption.
• Spending five or more hours exercising each week reduced the risk of cancers of the stomach cancer by 17 percent, endometrial cancer by 12 percent, kidney cancer by 11 percent, colon cancer by 9 percent, esophageal cancer by 8 percent, breast cancer by 7 percent, and urinary bladder cancers by 4 percent (Med and Sci in Sprts and Ex, March 2021;54(3):417-423).
• A review of 12 prospective U.S. and European studies on risk for 26 types of cancer in 1.44 million adults followed for 11 years, showed that exercise was associated with reduced risks for cancer regardless of body size or smoking history (JAMA Intern Med, published online May 16, 2016).
• Heart-lung fitness was measured by the maximum amount of oxygen that 5131 Danish men could take in and use (VO2max). They were followed for 44 years, and 1527 (29.8 percent) developed cancers. The higher their fitness levels, the less likely they were to develop cancers (Br J Sports Med, 2017 Sep;51(18):1364-1369). In another study, heart-lung fitness in 13,949 men showed that the fitter they were, the less likely they were to suffer deaths from cancers of the lung, colon and rectum (JAMA Oncol, May 2015;1(2):231-7).
Fitness Helps to Treat Many Types of Cancer
Exercise is recommended as part of the treatment for cancer by the American College of Sports Medicine, American Society of Clinical Oncology, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Cancer Society, Oncology Nursing Society, the Commission on Cancer, and the Cancer Foundation For Life. A regular exercise program reduces carcinogenic inflammation, strengthens the immune system, and improves mental processing by lowering cancer-inducing insulin-like growth factor 1, DNA damage and gene mutations, and increasing apoptosis (Exp Biol Med (Maywood), Feb 2013;27:585-6; Br J Cancer, 2011;105:S52-73).
An extensive review of research (Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, December 1, 2016;1(17):152-158) shows that exercise:
• reduces the side effects of chemotherapy treatments including nausea, fatigue, anxiety, and depression and increases bone strength and muscle mass (Curr Treat Options Oncol, 2008;9:135-46).
• increases the percentage of people who are able to complete full-dose chemotherapy regimens (J Clin Oncol, 2007;25:4396-404).
• can increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy (Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 2013;6:925-37).
• reduces heart damage from chemotherapy (Circulation, 2011;124:642-50).
• markedly reduces arm swelling from extensive breast cancer surgery (N Engl J Med, 2009;361:664-73).
• is associated with a 50 percent increased survival rate in patients treated for breast cancer (JAMA, 2005;393:2479-86) and colon cancer (J Clin Oncol, 2006;24:3535-41).
• is associated with a 70 percent risk reduction in high-grade, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers (Arch Intern Med, 2005;165:1005-10).
A Fitness Program for Cancer Patients
The FitSTEPS for Life (FSFL) program was started in 2001 as an evidence-based cancer rehabilitation program that charges no fees, is community-based, and is offered to cancer survivors from diagnosis onward. In the last 12 years, more than 14,000 referred patients have attended more than 350,000 exercise sessions at 13 community-based locations. To be accepted by FSFL, a cancer patient must be referred by a physician with specific recommendations on the patient’s limits for safe exercising.
Tips on Exercise for Cancer Patients
If you do not already have a regular exercise program, check with your doctor as soon as possible. After your doctor approves exercise for you, try to get into an exercise program that caters to people who are starting out at your level of fitness. I cannot recommend a specific exercise program for cancer patients because the amount of exercise you can do is limited by level of fitness and extent of disease. I can tell you that all exercisers, healthy or not, should follow these rules:
• Take the day off when your muscles feel tight or hurt after you have warmed up for five or more minutes. It is normal for muscles to feel sore when you first get up in the morning, but they should feel better after you have exercised for five to 10 minutes. Soreness after warming up means that your muscle fibers are damaged and are at increased risk for tearing if you exercise that day. Sometimes you can get away with exercising at reduced intensity on days when your muscles feel sore.
• Stop exercising immediately when you feel increasing soreness in one spot. That means that your muscles are about to go into a spasm and tear. You can prevent many injuries just by stopping exercising when you feel pain in one spot and not in the same spot on the other side of your body.
• Slow down if your muscles start to feel tight, hurt or burn. If the discomfort goes away in a short time, you can pick up the pace again, but if it continues, stop for the day. As you keep on exercising, your muscle fibers start to tear and run out of their stored sugar supply. Your body always talks to you and tells when this is happening to you. Failure to listen to your body is the most common cause of exercise injuries.